What Is Clinical Research?

Device and drug testing commences with laboratory research that can encompass years of experiments on animals and on human cells. If the primary laboratory research turns out to be successful, then the researchers send the information to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for consent for the continuation of the research and testing on humans.

Once the drug and device has been approved, human testing of the experimental drug and the devices can commence and typically takes place in four different stages. Every phase is considered as separate trials and after the completion of the specific phases, the investigators have to turn in their data from FDA prior to continuing to the next phase.

Procedure of human clinical trails

Phase I studies

The phase 1 studies evaluate the safety of the drug or the device. This primary phase of testing can take up to multiple months to finish, normally encompasses a small number of healthy volunteers mainly from 20 to 100 people. The people are paid for participating in the phase. The whole study is designed to determine the impact of the device or the drug on humans including how it is taken in, metabolised and then excreted. This phase of study also investigates side effects, if any, which might occur when the number of doses is increased. More than 65% of the experimental drugs have to undergo this phase of testing.

Phase II studies

The second phase of study tests the efficacy of the device or the drug. This second phase of study can last up to several months or up to two years and includes multiple patients. Most of the second phase of studies are unsystematic trials where a group of patients is divided into two, first group of the patients get the experimental drug while the second half of the whole group gets a standard treatment or a placebo. Often this phase is blinded which signifies that neither the researcher nor the patient is aware of which group received the experimental drug. This permits the investigators to offer pharmaceutical company and the FDA comparative details about the relative safety and effectiveness of the fairly new drug. One third of the experimental drugs successfully finish both the initial phases of the studies.

Phase III studies

This phase of study includes unsystematic as well as blind testing in multiple hundreds to thousands of patients. This broad scale testing that can last upto multiple years offer the FDA and the pharmaceutical company a detailed comprehension of the effectiveness of the drug or the device, the perks and the range possible adverse reaction of the drug or device. More than 70 to 90% of the drugs that make it to this phase are able to complete the requirement of the testing of this phase. Once the third phase has been completed, the pharmaceutical company can make a request to the FDA to approve the marketing of the drug or device.

Phase IV studies

The study of the fourth stage is known as the post-marketing surveillance trails that are conducted after the device or the drug has been approved for sale to the consumers. The pharmaceutical companies have multiple objectives at this stage, such as:

Compare the new drug with the drugs that already exist in the market.
Monitor the long term effectiveness of the drug as well as its impact on the life of the patient.
Determine the cost effectiveness of the drug therapy with the traditional as well as new therapies.

The fourth phase of studies can result in the device or the drug being taken off from the market or restrictions being placed on its use depending upon the outcome that it can produce in the market.

Know the Uses of Reaction Bonded Silicon Carbide

Silicon carbide is popularly known as carborundum. The compound is made up of silicon and carbon elements and their chemical formula is SiC. The compound is naturally found as moissanite. This is used as an abrasive for which huge amounts of the compound is produced every year.

Do you know that this compound has varied uses? If not, continue reading this article to find out about the uses of the reaction bonded silicon carbide compound.

For Structural Materials

The compound is often used in bulletproof vests and composite armor. They also serve as shelving and support materials in high-temperature areas like kilns for glass fusing, firing ceramics, etc. The SiC kiln shelves are used because they are light in weight than the traditional alumina shelves.

As A Strong Catalyst Support

Reaction bonded silicon carbide exhibits a natural resistance property to oxidation. This, it is chosen as a heterogeneous catalyst to support oxidation reactions of hydrocarbons, like n-butane to maleic anhydride.

In Steel Production

When dissolved in basic oxygen furnace the compound can be used to make steel. The excess energy generated in the furnace allows processing of more scrap materials same as of hot metals.

As Abrasive Material and Cutting Tools

Silicon carbide is durable. Hence, they are used popularly as an abrasive in modern lapidary. The hardness of it makes it useful in the manufacturing industries for works like water-jet cutting, grinding, sandblasting and honing.

The finer particles of silicon carbide are fixed to paper to make sandpapers and grip tape for skateboards.

In Electric Systems

They are greatly used in the electric voltage purposes as silicon has a greater voltage acceptance. The earliest use of this compound was in the lightning arresters. Because of the voltage-dependent resistance, columns of carborundum pellets were used to connect the power lines with the earth. So, when lightning strikes the excess voltage will be passed to the earth harmlessly.

If switches are made out of them they can be placed in series. As they are good for high voltage requirements they can easily reduce the complexity of a system.

As Carborundum Printmaking

Another use of SiC compounds is collograph printmaking technique commonly known as Carborundum printmaking. On the surface of an aluminum plate, the Carborundum grit is applied to a paste. When the paste becomes dry the ink application is done. The ink gets trapped in the granular surface. When the ink is wiped off the bare areas the ink plate is printed onto paper. The painted marks embossed on the paper is the resultant print.

Is Homeschooling Worth It?

Are you considering to home school your child?

You might consider some pros and cons that may help you think more clearly about your child’s future.

PROS:-

The advantage of homeschooling kids is that they are free to learn whatever they want depending upon the curriculum their parents have designed for them. They are in a learning phase the whole day but in an interesting way. If we say this way that the parents would be able to teach them theoretically, as well as by giving them examples, or making that practice in their daily routines, and adopt that learning turning it into an exciting way of learning.

The family can make trips to different educational places whenever they want, not worrying about the time as well as they can go to vacations without an interruption of the school schedule. Older kids can be given different tasks during their vacations like budgeting for the family and choose the hotels and meals. They can also be given the task of road mapping and geography skills by telling them about the places they pass by.

Children who are very sensitive are protected in the home environment from bullies and can be protected from negative influences and are surrounded by loving family giving the child the right influence and positive environment. It can be effective to eliminate the stress of their kid if he is ridiculed and bullied. The kid should be taken out of the school for a certain period of time. If it is a serious case and the situation is getting worst day by day, then the parents are left with no choice and have to decide to get their kid out of the toxic environment and home school them for sometime.

It is most beneficial for a child who easily gets distracted and the children who have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The parents’ homeschooling these children would know their needs and could handle them more effectively as compared to the school. The parents can manage the time and eliminate the distractions that interfere with the child’s concentration. Parents can give them tasks to be done in fixed time and then give them small breaks depending upon the child’s response. The thing is that the child gets full attention by their parents and parents get to know their children better and have a better understanding of their behavior.

Children with learning disabilities can be homeschooled so that they do not feel left behind their class fellows and so that their self-confidence and self-esteem is not damaged. Let’s take an example of a child suffering from dyslexia that impacts his learning and decoding of words. He is uncomfortable going to school due to this condition. So, he can be homeschooled and his schedule can be designed in a unique way that suits his learning style and by discovering his strengths help him grow as a competitive individual.

CONS:-

The first problem that has to be considered is no matter how the parents design the schedule and try to give their kids the best education, they cannot meet the standards that a professional institute can give their child and the way the professional teachers convey the lecture. The child gets to interact not only with the fellow students, but he also interacts with the different teachers and the surroundings. In the break hours, he is able to play with different children provided a large playground for their outdoor activities.

The child follows a schedule and learns to get to the school at school timings on daily basis. He knows that he has to wake up early in the morning and then has no choice but to sleep early in the night, completing his homework on time. Indirectly he is learning time management by managing school timings, his homework, and time spent at home with his siblings and extracurricular activities. He is spending hours in the school so he gets to see different people and interacts with different surroundings, so he is not seeing his parents and siblings the whole day and get bored.

The kid learns to live with other children with different backgrounds, learn to share their things their ideas, and their perspectives. Unlike homeschooling where parents teach their children what’s right according to their beliefs and what they want their child to know. Here the child has no option but to follow their parents’ beliefs.

The kid has different opportunities to participate in different activities he is interested in like sports, writing, debate competition, speeches, arts, and many other creative activities. He has a motivation to compete with others and a competition to win. While in homeschooling the kid has no one to compete with him leading him to lack of motivation.

In my opinion, homeschooling is a good option for those kids who are physically or mentally challenged and they have difficulty coping up with other class fellows and feel left behind others. Otherwise I think the kids facing bullies should not be homeschooled for a long time on this basis, rather this situation should be handled in a different way by talking to the school management or changing the school, not by isolating them from the society because in future they have to face the society and it is better if they learn now how to cope up with such situations. Secondly, If children are homeschooled on this perception that the parents are protecting them from the negative environment, then they should think that for how long can they protect them from the evils of society? Someday their kids are going to have to encounter people and face the outer world.